Looks like a buggy with the insides of a motorbike, the AKO is an electric inverse leaning trike designed to make driving exciting again. Designed to seat people, the AKO’s stylings aren’t like maximum two-man or woman vehicles. With wheels at the front and one at the lower back, and with a body that its designers describe as nearly UFO-like, AKO’s a head turner. The 3-wheeled electric powered motors comes with a stellar 300km variety, even though there’s no phrase on what the pinnacle pace is right here. Weighing simply over 500 kilograms, the AKO comes with a height motor output energy of one hundred forty kW, which would possibly sound spectacular, however not as tons as how you operate the AKO.
With wheels at the front, you’d assume the AKO to have a guidance device like a automobile or a quad-motorbike, however no… in place of just genuinely turn wheels, AKO leans sideways, a design feature that not simplest mimics how motorsport bikes turn, however additionally gives you a sense of being one with the automobile because it glides at the tarmac, presenting an nearly aircraft-like enjoy to the riders. “The body leaning answer is based totally on natural mechanics (MB Lifejet concept is based on hydraulics) consequently making it manner cheaper to broaden and light. We filed a patent for this and proper now the second prototype is getting manner more subtle parts in comparison to the prototype zero”, says Artūras Mikalauskas, engineer on the Lithuania-based totally startup in the back of the AKO. The automobile presently exists just as a patent-pending evidence-of-idea, and must input its pre-sale level shortly.
My research into the “golden rule of tricycle layout” (having sixty six% of the load on the front axle and 33% at the rear) showed that this became more restrictive than vital, and that following a fixed of three layout tips might higher and allow more innovation. These are:
The centre of gravity should be set up as close to the two-wheel axle as feasible to maximize rollover balance.
The top of the centre of gravity need to be less than half the tune measurement and much less than the space to the front axle.
If the centre of gravity is within the front 1/2 of the car, the automobile could be strong at all speeds, otherwise similarly calculation is vital to decide the velocity limit of lateral stability.
The release of the Atomic Duck layout cause a dialogue at the ‘BentRider Online boards approximately the proper weight distribution of a tadpole trike.
Because I wasn’t aware that the dynamics of 3 wheeled motors had been especially extraordinary to 4 wheeled cars, I asked for extra information–that is one of the motives open source works nicely, replacing thoughts to improve understanding. The responses advised a demand for weight distribution that changed into very prescriptive. To paraphrase:
The golden rule of trike design:
To make certain balance of a trike with wheels on the the front axle, the centre of gravity (centre of mass) should be a third of the wheelbase back from the the front axle. This gives a static vertical wheel load of a 3rd of the burden on each wheel; equal to 66% at the front axle and 33% on the rear.
What additionally got here through changed into, that there wasn’t one clear motive why this rule existed. Suggestions have been made about balancing rollover stability with braking overall performance, but my first article on tricycle stability and its research failed to show some thing so singular.
After asking about the supply of the golden rule, this design was instructed to be a “Three Wheeled Vehicle Dynamics” from Jeffrey C Huston, Brian J Graves and David B Johnson from 1982. It seems possibly that this is the original supply for the rule, they don’t cite any previous paper in their references, it turned into in the beginning posted in 1982 and has been used as a source in an IHPVA magazine article.
Specifically, they conclude:
To make sure lateral balance for the situation of regular pace straight line movement, it is advocated that the 3 wheeled automobile with two wheels on the the front axle be designed in order that its mass center is placed within the front 1/3 of the automobile…
Huston, Graves and Johnson’s paintings on rollover stability is just like what I offered inside the previous publish approximately tricycle stability, although they continued similarly. But I did discover a few confusion inside the lateral balance calculations. When I re-ran their calculations, I got here up with a special end.
As a end result, I suggest that the golden rule might be higher replaced by way of 3 design pointers:
The centre of gravity should be established as near the two-wheel axle as feasible to maximise rollover balance.
The height of the centre of gravity should be much less than 1/2 the track dimension (and much less than the gap to the front axle).
If the centre of gravity is inside the front half of the vehicle, the vehicle might be solid in any respect speeds, otherwise further calculation is important to decide the velocity restrict of lateral stability.
Unfortunately, the paper isn’t always freely to be had on line…which restricts how easy it is to discuss the contents. So I’ve reviewed the principle findings about rollover and lateral stability, and the way my consequences differ from the unique authors this technical article: On the Golden Rule of Trike Design
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